At the Workplace and Beyond Carol Van Duzer Project in Adult Immigrant Education PAIE February Listening is a critical element in the competent language performance of adult second language learners, whether they are communicating at school, at work, or in the community. Through the normal course of a day, listening is used nearly twice as much as speaking and four to five times as much as reading and writing Rivers,
Native English speakers attend adult basic education ABE classes to learn basic skills so they can get high school equivalency certificates or achieve other goals related to job, family, or further education.
English language learners attend English as a second language ESL or ABE classes to improve their oral and written skills in English and to achieve goals similar to those of native English speakers.
Audience for this Brief This brief is written for the following audiences: A number of Web sites are provided as examples in this article.
The list is not an exhaustive one nor does this brief necessarily endorse these specific sites. It is strongly recommended that practitioners take the time to evaluate for themselves whether a particular Web site or online professional development service can meet their needs in an effective manner.
The reader should be aware that given the speed at which electronic resources change, the Web sites listed within this brief may not remain current after publication of this brief. Background Programs face a number of challenges in providing professional development for educators of adults learning English as a second language ESL.
Facilities for providing professional development may be located far from one another within a state or region. In addition, teachers may have widely varying teaching experience, training, and qualifications.
As a result, it can be difficult to: Professional development provided online offers a way to address these challenges. This brief describes current efforts to provide online professional development opportunities and resources for adult ESL teachers and discusses factors that must be considered in the development, delivery, and evaluation of professional development that is available online.
Research Findings Online professional development programs hold great promise for use with adult ESL educators. Working in the context of a graduate level program for teaching English to Speakers of other languages TESOLRoessingh and Johnson compared the challenges and benefits of teaching online courses with teaching the same courses in a traditional face-to-face setting.
These findings take on particular significance when considered alongside the results of studies exploring the primary problems outlined in the Background of traditional professional development for teachers in adult education.
Online professional development seems poised to help in meeting these needs. This does not mean that online professional development is a panacea. A study looking at the benefits and problems surrounding the use of an online professional development resource site for teachers of English as a foreign language EFL found that while the teachers reported positive perceptions of the resources on the Web site, they did not make frequent use of them Kabilan, Given the large investments of time, money, and expertise necessary to design and facilitate courses online, a question to be considered is: Egbert and Thomas point to the design of online programs as a possible culprit: Because adult ESL educators are often limited in choice to online professional development courses designed either for a general adult educator audience or for ESL teachers who do not teach adults see Tables 1 and 2 belowthe question of content relevance is particularly valid.
Technical Support Researchers have found that teachers have a persistent, if hesitant, interest in technology for instructional purposes, but often feel uncomfortable or ill prepared to use it in their teaching Sabatini, Daniels, Ginsberg, Limeul, and Russell, Much remains to be learned about what goes into building a community identity among adult ESL teachers.
One element that has been found to contribute to community building online is to emphasize a common sense of responsibility among members. The same study also found that having clear rules for member participation—some predefined, some negotiated by the group—also helped create a sense of community among the learners.
Time and Incentives Offering a course on the Web is only a first step in providing online professional development options for teachers. The course needs to be maintained through continuous funding and disseminated so that teachers will know that it is available and how they can benefit from using it.
Online Professional Development Programs in Use In order to understand the full range of professional development options available online for adult ESL instructors, it is helpful to distinguish between two broad categories of online resources and online training.
However, distinguishing the two is a first step in helping practitioners select options to meet their needs. It should be noted that while some of the Web sites listed here have been designed specifically for adult ESL teachers, others are designed with different teacher populations in mind but nevertheless provide important information and activities for adult ESL teachers.
Online Resources Online resources include a broad range of Web sites and online materials. What is common among these resources is that they can be accessed by teachers in order to learn about and, in some cases, share ideas on topics related to the profession of adult ESL teaching.
Writing-to-Learn Activities Posted on 14 December by Elena Shvidko Many of you are probably familiar with writing-to-learn (WTL) activities—“Short, impromptu or otherwise informal writing tasks that help students think through key concepts or ideas presented in a course. Writing exercises This section of the ESL site contains many exercises for learners to practice the various aspects of written English, including spelling and punctuation. There are a number of texts to correct or complete, and suggestions on how to improve all the writing skills. Marianne Raynaud explains why ESL/EFL students don't learn to speak English and tells teachers what to do to get the students/learners speaking. The latter need practice through oral exercises, lab work, listening comprehension, cloze exercises, guided presentations, intensive pair work, tutorials, worksheets with easy-to-understand keys.
These sites are often—but not always—free. While they do not provide formal feedback to the teacher, they may involve interaction online with other adult ESL practitioners. Use of these resources is on an informal basis and does not result in a recognized, formal outcome such as a certificate or professional development points.
It is possible to distinguish among three types of online resources that adult ESL practitioners can access: The following section describes these types of resources and sample Web sites and a summary is provided in Table 1.
Professional texts The broadest type of online resources refers to the many texts available online for the adult ESL practitioner who is looking for current research from the field; guidelines on designing, teaching, or assessing adult ESL classes; or general information on issues of relevance to the profession.
These texts include online journals on topics such as ESL teaching e. TESL Journal at http: New Horizons in Adult Education at www. Reading Online at www.
Online resource texts also include newsletters of particular relevance to adult ESL practitioners, such as the quarterly CAL Progress, which is published by the California Adult Literacy Professional Development Project and is accessible at www.
Although intended primarily for teachers in the state of California, the newsletter contains useful information for out-of-state adult ESL teachers as well, such as articles on recent research, a resource corner, and essays of shared experiences and ideas from the field.Oct 12, · Teacher Discussion Forums \"The Internet's Meeting Place for ESL/EFL Students and Teachers from Around the World!\" Skip to content.
Related Links. Pre-production and the Silent Period If your new English language learner is not speaking, don't worry. Most newcomers go through a stage during which they do not produce language.
The Importance of Teaching Writing Skills in ESL. Writing is often overlooked in ESL teaching and learning. At a beginning level, it may be seen as a task for the intermediate and advanced stages.
Writing Activities. Young learners building their literary skills will benefit from both group and individual writing activities. Collaborative writing activities like recipe and story crafting bring students together to constructively critique grammar and spelling. English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native r-bridal.comge education for people learning English may be known as English as a second language (ESL), English as a foreign language (EFL), English as an additional language (EAL), or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).The aspect in which ESL is taught is called teaching .
Limiting TV viewing frees up time for reading and writing activities. It is worth noting that captioned TV shows can be especially helpful for children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, studying English as a second language, or having difficulty learning to read.